13. Index

13. Index
Contributors (1)
PS
Published
Mar 14, 2019

academic freedom, 237–239, 248–249, 263, 264, 401–402. See also mandates, OA

access

digital divide and, 38, 111, 350

dissemination costs, funding, 47

profitability and, 18, 20, 237–238

publisher attempts to control, 48, 144–145, 317–318

quality, relation to, 271, 279

universal, 38, 54–56, 197, 350

access, barriers to. See also permission barriers; price barriers

censorship, 38

connectivity, 38, 111

copyright, 43, 45, 322

custom, 321–322

for disabled users, 38

DRM, 43, 45

filtering, 38

language, 38

legal, 43, 322. See also copyright

money solution for, 109–110

technological, 43

access, economic barriers to. See also price barriers

access fees, 30, 337, 350, 396–397

gratis OA for removing, 26–27, 83–89, 171, 413

journals, rising prices of, 7–11, 33, 37–38, 41–45, 72, 93–97, 124, 337–338

reader-side fees, 30, 337, 350

activism, 186–187

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), xiv

Advanced Research Projects Agency-NET (ARPA-NET), xiv

advertising, 32, 40, 133, 162, 334, 347, 351

age-weighted citation rate (Jin), 168, 290

Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), 231

aid to natural disaster survivors, 107–108

Albanese, Andrew, 244

alert systems, 40, 94, 104, 112. See also current awareness services

Alliance for Taxpayer Access (ATA), 198, 212, 227

Amazon, 381

Amedeo, 77

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 124

American Association of University Presses (AAUP), 17, 187, 228, 245

American Chemical Society (ACS), 79, 160, 229

American Physical Society (APS), 160

American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB), 275

Anderson, Kent, 180

Andrew, Theo, 360

anti-competitive practices. See monopoly

artificial intelligence, 112

Aristippus, 334

Arriba Soft, Kelly v., 147

Arthritis Research Campaign (ARC) (UK), 207, 231, 256

article processing charges (APCs), 413. See also publication fees

Arts & Humanities Research Council (AHRC) (UK), 231, 241

arXiv, 34, 185, 250, 294, 327

Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), 123–124

Association of American Publishers (AAP), 19, 79, 163, 187, 206

Association of American Publishers / Professional/Scholarly Publishing (AAP/PSP), 141, 146, 228–229, 236, 244

Association of American Universities (AAU), 17

Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers (ALPSP), 60, 72, 123–124, 141, 146, 159, 161

Association of Research Libraries (ARL), 17

The Atlantic, 372–373

Atomic Dog, 77

audience size

benefit of OA, xiv, 15–16, 38, 40, 42, 46, 48, 61, 69, 97, 104, 219, 275–278, 296, 339, 341, 400

humanities vs. science journals, 331

internet and potential for, 11, 46, 97, 305, 403

limiting, 80

OA vs. TA journals, 276, 296

open courseware and, 77

Australia, 214, 217, 361

Australian Research Council (ARC), 217

Austria, 207, 232

author addenda, 35, 73, 141, 143, 147

author rights

attribution, 26, 146, 171, 252, 312

balancing again publisher rights, 141–148, 218–220, 230–231, 233

to authorize OA, 6, 21, 35–36, 62, 236, 238, 266, 375

to retain copyright, 32, 35, 62, 73, 160, 372

authors. See also faculty

competition for, 295, 297

fee waivers, 123–124, 134, 151, 157, 216, 272

as initial copyright holders, 6, 35–36, 230

journals, historical benefit to, 41

knowledge of OA, 65–69, 80, 125, 226, 314

payment for journal articles, xiv, 4, 29–30, 41, 46, 303–305

prestige incentive, 63, 283–285, 287, 289–290, 298, 362–363

pride, effects of, 276–278, 362

writing for impact, 28, 41, 45, 47, 77, 104, 305, 359

authors, OA and

author-centric strategies for achieving, 59–64

benefit of OA to, 40, 42, 46, 48–49, 61, 69, 75, 97, 219

control the rate of growth of OA, 59, 80

incentives to provide OA, 62–63, 78, 152, 249, 259, 283

journals, attitudes toward, 125, 226

knowledge about OA, 65–69, 80

as obstacle to OA, 36, 68, 80

promotion and tenure committees, 63, 168–169, 283, 289, 298

Baen Free Library, 306, 339

Bakken, Frode, 387

Barendse, William, 168, 290

Batista, Pablo D., 168, 290

Batting Average (Kleinberg), 168, 290

Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry (BMC), 131, 137, 280

Belgium, 214, 232

Bennett, Douglas, 288

Bentham Open, 180

Bergstrom, Carl, 168, 277, 290

Bergstrom, Theodore, 277

Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, 26, 83, 85, 172, 251, 311–316

Berman, Howard, 242–243

Berne Convention, 231

Berners-Lee, Tim, xiv

Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing, 26, 83, 172, 251, 311–316, 352

biology, 63, 152, 169, 275, 280, 332, 333

BioMed Central (BMC), 32–33, 47, 60, 131, 137, 160, 176–177, 183, 324, 354n2

Blackwell, 75

blogs, 32, 75

Bollier, David, 14

BookPower, 77

books. See also digitization; monographs; textbooks

compared to journals, 41, 43, 46, 256, 288, 335, 338, 359

ebook readers (hardware) for digital books, 77, 80

exceptions to some OA mandates, 202, 255–256

OA books, 32, 75–77, 262, 335, 339, 355

print sales increased by OA editions, 77, 306, 339

royalty-producing, 46, 202, 255–256, 303, 335, 359,

books, digitized. See also copyright, digitization of works under; public domain, digitization of works in the

British Library project, 373

costs of producing, 77

ebooks and ebook readers, 77

Google project for, 382, 385, 386, 387

growth in, 76–77

nonrivalrous property, 4–5

for preservation, 136, 177

print on demand (POD), 77

print sales increased by OA, 77, 306, 339

restricting usage of, 384–385

boycotts, 38, 46

Brady, Matthew, 380

brand, 11, 108, 174, 195, 253, 287, 288, 292, 294, 322, 323, 351. See also prestige; reputation

Bravo, Norka Ruiz, 260

Brazil, 396

British Heart Foundation, 207

British Library, 177

British Library Digitisation Strategy, 373

British Medical Journal (BMJ), 275, 277, 374

Brody, Tim, 74, 276

Brown, Sheridan, 65, 67, 221, 248

Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), ix, 26, 30, 46, 83, 85, 86, 97, 172, 251, 311–316, 359, 413

Burma, 107–108

Bush, George W., 202, 209, 211, 232

California Law Review, 68

California Open Source Textbook Project, 77

Cambridge University Press, 187

Canada, 54–56, 160, 197, 207, 231, 232

Canadian Breast Cancer Research Alliance, 207

Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, 207

Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), 207, 231, 241, 256

Canadian Library Association, 324

Canadian Treasury Board, 54

Cancer Research UK (CR-UK), 207, 231, 256

career advancement. See also faculty; prestige; reputation

benefit of OA to, 61, 69

deposited articles and, 263–264

impact factors and, 62, 289, 290, 322

promotion and tenure committees, 62–63, 167, 174, 263–264, 283, 289, 298

Carr, Les, 67, 74, 221

Carroll, Mike, 227–228

cell phones, 75–76

censorship, 19, 38, 205–206

Center for Journal Ranking, 168, 290

chemistry, 131, 137, 160, 280, 332

ChemWeb, 118

China, 19

CIBER, 74

citation impact, 69, 74, 276–277, 287, 289, 294. See also impact factors

CiteULike, 76

citizens

benefit of OA to, 41

NIH public-access policy, commenting on, 198

taxpayer argument for OA, 4–5, 51–58, 197–198, 236, 332

classified research, 29, 41, 202, 204, 210, 255

clean energy, analogies to, 319–328

clickwrap licenses, 359, 383

Co-Action Publishing, 160

Coalition for Networked Information (CNI), 17

Coble, Howard, 242

Codex Leicester (da Vinci), 386

Cohen, Barbara, 353

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 187

collaboration, 48, 76, 349

Columbia University Press, 187

commerce, internet, xiv

Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC), 73

common property, 12

CommonText, 77

communication, optimal results and, 12

competition, 11, 77, 131, 137, 154, 297, 347, 353, 375, 376, 379, 401. See also markets; monopoly

compliance

with funder OA policies, 194, 198, 204, 210, 211, 217, 238, 247, 250, 253–254, 260, 261, 361

incentives for, 261, 263–264

NIH policy, 247, 261, 360–361

with university OA policies, 216, 221, 238, 247–248, 260–262, 263–265, 361, 364

willing compliance with OA mandates, 63, 215, 238, 248

conference presentations, OA for, 253, 262

connectivity barriers, 38

Connotea, 76

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) (Spain), 231

Consolidated Appropriations Act, 212

Contemporary h-index (Sidiropoulos), 168, 290

Contemporary Issues in Technology & Teacher Education, 160

contractors, access to works of federal, 51

contracts. See also copyright law

author incentives to sign, 284, 372

author addenda to modify, 35, 73, 141, 143, 147

clickwrap licenses as, 359, 383

funding, 6, 51, 238–239

NARA-Custom Flix, 381, 384

NIH-style funding, 227, 230–231, 237–238, 241

publishers, 6–7, 35, 73, 141, 160–161, 192, 218, 225, 233, 257, 284, 233

secret, no-bid, 381

voluntary, OA mandates as condition of, 28, 215, 238, 364–365, 377

Conyers, John, 187, 227–246

coolness, 286

Copenhagen Business School, 7

Copernic, 410

copy editing, 53, 96, 162, 292, 293, 335–336

copyfraud, 373, 382–385. See also copyright

copyright. See also copyfraud; digitization of works under copyright; fair use; intellectual property rights; libre OA; orphan works; public domain

as an access barrier, 43, 45, 322

all-rights-reserved, 171–173, 188, 413

attribution and, 26, 146, 171, 252, 312

authors right to retain, 32, 35, 62, 73, 160

consent vs. privilege, 387

database right, 252, 380, 382, 385

derivative works, 26, 87, 312, 313

doesn't cover facts and ideas, 4, 112, 252

expiration of, 6, 27, 88, 376,

Fair Copyright in Research Works Act (Conyers bill) and, 227–241

Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPAA) and, 203, 207–208

institutional use of, 173, 219

NIH public-access policy and, 193, 196–197, 202, 227–240, 241–242

as a preservation barrier, 104, 172, 178, 384

public good and, 5–6

publisher overreach on, 7, 146, 208, 229, 233, 235, 239, 241, 375–376

state-created monopoly, 20

Copyright Alliance, 229

copyright holders

authors as, 6, 32, 35–36, 32, 62, 73, 160, 230

journals as, 347

publishers as, 208, 233–240, 375

copyright infringement

commonplace, 6

Fair Copyright in Research Works Act (Conyers bill), 241

Harvard method for avoiding, 35, 207, 220–224

mass infringement, 403–404

methods for avoiding, 257–258

NIH method for avoiding, 211, 229, 230–233, 241

plagiarism vs., 146

publisher claims of, 230, 375

whether invisibility is worse, 305

Copyright Office (United States), 244

copyright reform, 27, 45, 46, 47, 77–78, 97, 208, 227, 229, 231, 241, 258, 306, 322, 359

Cornell University, 94, 137, 327, 384–386

Cornyn, John, 201–204, 242,

cosmic expansion, 409, 411

Creative Commons (CC) licenses. See also libre OA; open licenses

attribution licenses, 160, 165, 171, 252

copyright holders consent to OA using, 27

libre OA and, 188n1

-BY licenses, 171–172, 188n2, 252

-BY-NC licenses, 171–172

-BY-ND licenses, 87

society publishers, 160–161

Credit Suisse First Boston, 16, 274–275

Cuplinskas, Darius, 353

CURES Act (United States), 201, 203–204

current awareness services, 399. See also alert systems

CustomFlix, 381, 384

Cyclone Nargis, 107–108

Dahlberg, John E., 105

Dalton, Joan, 365

dark deposits, 34, 257, 265, 286. See also repositories; green OA

dark web, 410

Darnton, Robert, 215, 219

data. See also metadata and metadata harvesting

cost-recovery model, 7

journal open-data requirements, 73

licensing, 253

open data, 73, 252, 253

text-data integration, 74

database right, 382

Davis, Crispin, 110

Davis, Phillip, 126, 129, 180

Davis/Anderson hoax, 180

DC Principles Coalition (DCPC), 159, 163, 227, 229, 233, 245

Deep Query Manager, 410

Department of Agriculture (US), 201

Department of Commerce (US), 201–202

Department of Defense (US), 201

Department of Education (US), 201, 378

Department of Energy (US), 201

Department of Health and Human Services (US), 201

Department of Homeland Security (US), 201

Department of Transportation (US), 201

Depository Services Program, 54

deposits. See repositories

design, quality of, 279

developer incentives, 74, 76

Dezenhall, Eric, 79

Digital Access to Research Theses (DART) project, 360

Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard (DASH) (Harvard), 34

digital divide, 38, 111

Digital Library of the Commons, 12

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), 404

digital rights management (DRM), 43, 45, 306

digitization of works under copyright. See also books; copyright

British Library project, 373

false claims to copyright, 373, 382–384

orphan works, 378, 387

private funding, 372–374, 377–378

public funding, 372–378

digitization of works in the public domain. See also books; public domain

British Library project, 373

with private funding, policies for, 373, 385–386

with public funding, policies for, 372–373, 381–385

with public-private funding, 378–381, 386–387

restricting usage of, 373

Digitizing American Imprints program, 378, 380

Dionysius, 334

Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), 34, 123, 138–139, 163–164, 172, 176, 188

Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR), 37, 67

disabled users, 38

disaster relief, 107–108

dissemination fees, 47, 337, 396–397

dissemination speed, 75–76

dissertations. See electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs)

Distributed Open Access Reference Citation project (University of Oldenberg), 168, 290

DK Associates, 118

Dominguez, Magaly Báscones, 126, 129

download counts, 74, 240

Doyle, Helen, 353

DPubS, 72

DSpace repository software, 257

Duke University, 94

Dylan, Bob, xiii

ebook readers (hardware), 75, 77

Eckersley, Peter, 387

Economic & Social Research Council (ESRC) (UK), 231, 256

economic stimulus, OA as, 374

editors (of scholarly journals). See also peer review

copy editors, variable need for, 335–336

peer-review editors generally not paid, 31, 47, 335

Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), 378

Egghe, Leo, 168, 290

Eigenfactor (Carl Bergstrom), 74, 168, 290

electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs), 264–265, 278, 357–369

Electronic Thesis project (JISC), 360

Elsevier, 18, 68, 79, 110, 118, 180, 206, 272

embargoes

compromises, 255, 374–377, 379–380

Conyers bill, 236

for digitization projects, 375–377, 380–381

eliminate eventually, 324–325

Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPAA) and, 201, 204, 207

funder policies on, 254–255

library subscriptions and, 342

maximum, 161, 193, 197, 204, 254, 255

medical research, 232, 254

NARA, 381

NIH and, 211, 235, 254, 375–376

for patents, 255

post-copyright, 376

postprint, 161, 344, 347

publishers, 221–223, 256–257, 324–325

science vs. humanities research, 334

university policies on, 226, 254–255

encouragement of OA (as opposed to requiring OA), 193, 194,198, 217

English, Ray, 129, 210

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 201

eprints, 117–119, 121

EPrints Handbook, 119

EPrints repository software, 68, 257

eScholarship Repository (University of California), 337

ETH Zurich, 259

European Bureau of Library, Information and Documentation Associations (EBLIDA), 373

European Database Directive, 382, 384

The European Library (TEL), 76, 382–384

European Research Council, 207, 254

European Union (EU), 232, 254, 279, 384

European University Association, 265

Eysenbach, Gunther, 276

faculty. See also authors; career advancement; researchers

academic freedom, 237–239, 248249, 263, 264, 401–402

condition of employment, OA as, 7

ETD mandate, opposition to, 366–367

freedom to publish, 20–21, 248, 258, 263, 338

opt-out policies for, 35, 216, 218–220, 223, 226, 263

self-imposed OA policies, 7, 213–226

Fair Copyright in Research Works Act (Conyers bill), 187, 227–241

fair use. See also copyright

applies to online work, 146–147

exceeding, 26–27, 85, 87–88, 171–173, 196, 375, 381

gratis OA, 88

judgment calls, 44

limitations, 146–147

permission barriers, 87, 173, 251, 312

plagiarism and, 146

restoring, 359

text mining, 173

users and, 171–174, 196, 251

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 107

Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPAA), 146, 201–208, 250, 255, 260

fee waivers, 123–124, 134, 151, 153–154, 157, 216, 272

Field, Blake, 147

Field v. Google, 147

filtering, 38

flipping journals from non-OA to OA, 149–158, 185–186, 326

Fods de la recherche en santé du Québec, 207

folksonomy, 76

Footnote.com, 380

Fox, Edward, 360

France, 214, 232

Frank, Martin, 233–235, 240

Franklin, Benjamin, xiii

Frazier, Kenneth, 338

free and open-source software, 26, 27, 31, 37, 72–73, 88, 335, 338, 414

Free Curricula Center, 77

freedom of expression, 99–104

freedom to publish, 20–21, 241

Free High School Science Texts, 77

Freeload Press, 77

Free Online Scholarship (FOS) revolution, 395–398, 400–402

Free Online Scholarship Newsletter (FOSN), xv

free software, 26, 37, 72–73

FreeTechBooks, 77

fear, uncertainty, doubt (FUD), 131, 138

funding. See also research funding; university funding

charitable, 105–106

contracts, 6, 51, 238–239, 257

disciplinary differences, 39, 128, 135, 332–334, 337

digitization projects, 372–374

institutional subsidies, 30, 32, 47–48, 131, 135–138, 155, 326, 338

private, digitization of works under copyright, 372–374, 377–378

privately funded research, 29, 63, 72, 128, 131, 251, 323, 336, 344, 372, 373

public, digitization of works under copyright, 372–378

public-private partnerships, 378–385

publication fees, 32–33, 47, 61–62, 73, 180–182, 207, 258–260

publicly funded research, 4–5, 29, 51–58, 128, 131, 146, 191–199, 201–208, 232, 236, 251, 323, 336, 344, 372, 373, 376

redirection of funds, 184–186, 297

unbinding projects, 348–352

funding agencies, OA policies, 6–7, 35–36, 63, 146, 249, 372

benefits of OA to, 41

compliance with funder OA policies, 194, 198, 204, 210, 211, 217, 238, 247, 250, 253–254, 260, 261, 361

embargoes, 254–255, 374–377, 379–380

exceptions, 29, 202, 255–256,

gratis vs. libre, 251–252

green vs. gold, 248–249

permissions, securing, 211, 229, 230–233, 241, 257–258,

regulate grantees, not publishers, 205, 241

repository designation, 249–251

requirement vs. request, 247–248

sanctions, non-compliance, 193–194, 204, 217, 260–261

scope of policies, 253–254

timetable for deposits, 256–257

Fund to Promote Scientific Research (Austria), 207

Fyffe, Richard, 369

GAPworks, 72

gardening strategy, 186–187

Gates, Bill, 386

Genome Canada, 207

Germany, 232

Gibbs, W. Wayt, 52

gifts and gift culture, 20, 98, 144, 292

g-index (Egghe), 168, 290

global south (developing world), 78, 350

Global Text Project, 77

gold OA (through journals). See also journals, OA

compared with green OA, 32, 86, 173, 293, 298, 299, 327

defined, 31–34, 413

less suited to mandates than green OA, 205, 248–249, 265

gratis/libre distinction, 86, 251

misunderstandings about, 33, 124–126, 129, 131, 133, 134, 137, 187

Goodlatte, Bob, 235

Google, 19, 72, 75–76, 117–121, 147, 361, 380–382, 386–387, 410

Google, Field v., 147

Google Library Project, 217, 384–385

Graf, Klaus, 387

grants. See funding agencies; research grants

gratis OA, 26–27, 32, 83–89, 171, 172, 173, 251–252, 265, 266, 381, 384, 385, 413. See libre OA.

green OA (through repositories). See also dark deposits; postprint archiving; preprint archiving; repositories, OA

better suited to mandates than gold OA, 205, 248–249, 265

compared with gold OA, 32, 35, 86, 293, 298, 299, 327

defined, 31–32, 34–37, 413, 414

ease of, 67–68, 143, 362

humanities vs. sciences demand, 334

gratis/libre distinction, 86, 251

growth of, 72, 185

mandates, 7, 35–36, 223, 248–249

mistaking green mandates for gold, 223,

misunderstandings about, 67, 75, 221, 285, 299

most TA publishers permit it, 35–36, 142–143, 249

opt-out policies, 35, 216, 218–220, 223, 226, 263

pale green OA, 33

rights-retention policies, 35, 207, 220–224

SPA (some pay for all) model, 325–326

subscriptions, effect on, 185, 259, 293–295

Guédon, Jean-Claude, 41

Gutenberg era, 281

Gutenberg Press, 319

Haematologica, 19

Hagedorn, Harry, 337

Hajjem, Chawki, 276

Hall, Steven, 73

Hammer, Armand, 386

handicapped users, 38

Hane, Paula, 149

Hardin, Garrett, 12–13

Harnad, Stevan, 67, 74, 84, 88–89, 211, 221–222, 256, 276

Harvard University, 35, 94, 213–226, 265, 386

Hatch, Orrin, 404

Health Department (UK), 207, 231, 256

Hess, Charlotte, 12–13

Higher Education Authority (HEA) (Ireland), 231

HighWire (HW) Press, 123–124, 160

Hill, Rowland, 110, 396

HINARI, 350

Hindawi Publishing, 135–136, 160, 183, 324

h-index (Hirsch), 74, 168, 290

Hirsch, J. E., 74, 168, 290

Hirtle, Peter, 177–178

HIV/AIDS research, 346–352

hoaxes, 18, 180

Hollings, Ernest (Fritz), 404

honesty, 18, 178–180, 236, 278, 309

Hooker, Bill, 139

Houghton, John, 374

Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), 29, 207, 231, 256

humanities, OA in the, 39, 52, 76, 135, 161, 180, 231, 331–339, 376

Hurricane Katrina, 105

Hwang, Woo Suk, 105

Hyman, Steven, 215

HyperJournal, 72

hyperlinks, multiple-resolution, 112

Ian, Janis, 306

iBoogie, 410

image-tampering, 104–105

impact factors. See also citation impact

citations, 69, 74, 289–290

discriminate against new journals, 167–170, 174

prestige and, 289–290

quality and, 175, 291

dissertations, 358

India, 160, 214, 276, 278

Indiana University, Digital Library of the Commons, 12

Indian Institute of Science, 278

Individual h-index (Batista), 168, 290

Informatika, 160

information overload, 93, 94, 119,120, 400–402

information scarcity, 322

Ingelfinger, Franz, 62

Ingelfinger Rule, 35, 62, 68, 235, 365–366

Ingwersen, Peter, 74, 168, 290

Instituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) (Italy), 231

intellectual property rights, 49, 51, 229, 231, 232, 404. See also copyright; patents

Intellectual Property (IP) treaties, 231, 241

International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers (STM), 73, 141, 146

internet

audience size and, 11, 46, 97, 305, 403

creation of the, xiv

dark web, 410

digital divide and the, 38, 111

function, xiv

mix of high and low quality, 280–281

online-only resources (OA and non-OA), 30, 73

prodigality of the, 403–405

taming the wildness of the, 409–411

Internet Archive, 361

internet generation, 78–79

Ireland, 231, 232

ISI Web of Science, 118

Italy, 231, 232

Japan, 160

Jefferson, Thomas, 3

Jensen, Michael, 339

Jin, Bihui, 168, 290

Johnson, Richard, xvi, 136

Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) (UK), 63, 207, 231, 256, 360, 373–374, 378

Jones, Richard, 242, 360

Joseph, Heather, xvi, 212

Journal Influence and Paper Influence Index, 74

Journal Influence Index (Center for Journal Ranking), 168, 290

journalism, 4, 15, 20

journal-management software, 72–73, 335

Journal of Biology (BMC), 63

Journal of Insect Science (University of Arizona), 337

Journal of the Medical Library Association (JMLA), 275

Journal of Visualized Experiments, 19

journals. See also specific journals

authors not paid for articles, xiv, 4, 29–30, 41, 46, 303–305

benefit of OA to, 40

benefits of faster turnaround than books, 41

compete for authors, not readers, 154, 297

digital, 176–178, 373

fake, 18, 180

humanities vs. sciences, 333

impact-factor (IF) eligibility, 168–170

impact metrics, 167–170

Ingelfinger Rule used by, 35, 62, 68

online-only, growth in, 73

postprint archiving permissions, 68, 73, 143, 194, 348, 366

preprint archiving permissions, 68–69, 143

prestige incentive, 293, 295, 298

profit margin / rejection rate correlation, 16

rejection rates, disciplinary differences, 333

road-building analogy, 7–9

unbinding projects, 345–355

journals, OA. See also gold OA; open access (OA); publishers, OA; quality

audience size, 15–16, 38, 40, 42, 48, 61, 97, 104, 296

business models, 33, 123–131, 133–139, 184

not just one, 32, 33, 248, 259, 413

competitive advantage, 276, 291, 296, 297

conversions from non-OA journals, 149–158, 185–186, 326, 344

copyright, 6, 32, 171–173

costs of production, TA vs., 30, 32, 55

discoverability, 75

false assumptions about, 33, 124–126, 133, 137

honesty, doubts about, 178–180

hybrid OA journals, 19, 38, 66, 73, 88, 136, 138, 153–154, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 170, 177, 259, 272–273, 326, 342

Impact Factors, 66, 74, 167–170, 291

incentives to accept submissions, 272, 274

libre OA and, 32, 171–173

no-fee, 19, 32, 124, 130, 131, 133–139, 150, 151, 155, 156, 171, 181, 298, 324, 325, 336

open licenses insufficiently used, 171–173

outsourcing publication, 160

overlay journals, 337

peer review, 30–31, 175, 272–273

preservation programs, 176–178

prestige, 63, 66, 174–176, 283–299, 293

profitability, 27, 32, 47, 77, 80, 135–136, 160, 183, 237, 274, 324

publication fees, 32–32, 123–128, 130, 133–135, 137–138, 161, 180–182, 272

quality, 124, 174–176, 272, 273, 274, 271–281, 283–299

redirection of funds to support, 184–186

society publishers and, 159–165

SPA (some pay for all) model, 325–326

submissions to, growth in, 40, 72, 74, 146, 153–154, 275–276, 291

sustainability, 33, 47, 182–184

journals, TA. See also publishers, TA; quality

boycotts and, 38, 46

competitive advantage, 276, 284–287, 295–297

conversions to OA, 149–158, 185–186, 326, 344

costs of production, OA vs., 30, 32, 55

fee waivers at fee-based journals, 123–124, 134, 151, 153–154, 157, 216, 272

incentives to accept submissions, 273–275

online-only, 176–177

open-data mandates, 73

peer review, 272–273

permit author-initiated green OA, 18, 143, 280, 285

preservation programs, 176–177

prices, sciences vs. humanities, 331–332

prices and price increases, 7–11, 33, 37–38, 41–45, 72, 93–97, 124, 337–338

price-impact / quality correlation, 277–278,

profitability, 11, 16–17, 18, 21, 54, 125, 182, 237, 273–274

profit margin / rejection rate correlation, 126

publication fees, 33, 123–124, 125, 182, 273, 279–280

quality-prestige relation, 174, 280, 283–299

redirection of subscription funds to support OA, 184–185

risks and perceived risks from OA, 293–294, 307–308, 322–323, 343–344

SPA (some pay for all) model, 326

sustainability, 183, 297

judgments, first and second order, 399–402

Kaplan-Myrth, Andy, 14

Kaufman, Cara, 123–124, 131, 133, 161, 182, 273

Kaufman-Wills Group, 123

Kelly v. Arriba Soft, 147

Kirtas-Amazon partnership, 76

Kleinberg, Jon, 168, 290

knowledge

access to, limiting, 18, 48

distribution of, 323–324

extraction of, 112

growth of, 42, 93–94, 119,120, 400–402

last-mile problem for, 107–113

nonrivalrous property of, 3–5, 97

of OA, by authors, 65–69, 80, 125, 226, 314

public good, 3–14

self-correction of, OA and, 99–105

sharing, 4–5, 17–18

Krujatz, Sebastian, 387

The Lancet, 187

language barriers, 38

Lappin, Debra, 353

last-mile problem for knowledge, 107–113

Lawrence, Gary S., 225

legislation. See individual acts and bills.

Liberman, Mark, 278

Libertas Academica, 77

Liberty Textbooks, 77

libraries. See also specific libraries

access, barriers to, 40, 43–50, 52, 60, 95

bargaining power of, 8

benefits of OA to, 40–41, 48, 96–97, 341

boycotts and, 38, 46

cancellation decisions, 16, 72, 279, 294, 341–343

censorship and, 205

dissertations in, 264, 358

free, offline access to, 77

incentives, OA, 33, 40–41, 48

paying publication fees, 186, 397

preservation, role in 176

pricing crisis, 16, 44, 72, 96, 137, 277, 331, 338, 341–344

reducing costs with OA, 137, 341–344

repositories, 341

road-building analogy, 8–11

public, 41, 52

ullage of, 407–408

Library of Congress, 378

libre OA, 83–89, 171–172, 178, 188n1, 413. See also access, barriers to; copyright; open licenses

licenses, 27, 39, 253, 413. See also Creative Commons (CC) licenses; open licenses

licensing agreements, 43

Lieberman, Joe, 201–204

Ligue des Bibliothèques Européennes de Recherche (LIBER), 373

Linksvayer, Mike, 14

Linnean Society of London, 160

Lippencott, 160

literature. See also books, digitized

boycotting, 38, 46

copyright-holder consents in OA, 45

crank, 400

digital, advantages of, 93–94

free access to, incentives for, 400–401

royalty-free/royalty-producing, 28–29, 258, 303–305

scholarly, revolutions in, 400

Little Rock Air Force Base, 107

Lots of Copies Keeps Stuff Safe (LOCKSS), 176, 249, 367

loophole mandates, 35, 217, 230, 241, 257–258, 323

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), 290, 407

machine translation, 38, 112

Macquarie University, 265

mail, 109–110, 396–398

Malamud, Carl, 373

mandates, OA. See also academic freedom; policies, OA; individual funders and universities

absence of coercion, 217, 363–365

contracts, OA as a condition of, 28, 215, 238, 364–365, 377

ETD mandates, 264–265, 359–367

green, not gold, 205, 248–249, 265

loophole mandates, 35, 217, 230, 241, 257–258, 323

many-eyeballs theory, 101

Marincola, Elizabeth, 275

marketing, 30, 53, 153, 292–293, 347

markets, 15–21, 44, 75, 96–97, 144, 154, 275, 289, 343, 401–402. See also competition, monopoly

mash-ups, 112

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 35, 94

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Press, 187

Max Planck Institute, 131

McGraw-Hill, 355n5

McMillan, Gail, 360, 365–366

McPherson, Isaac, 3

McVeigh, Marie E., 277

media

digital, copying, 98, 305–306

digital, OA and, 29, 39

internet age, 97

rivalrous, 3–5, 97–98

royalty-producing, 29, 255, 303–304

Medical Approaches, 77

Medical Journals Backfiles Digitization Project, 378, 380

Medical Research Council (MRC) (UK), 231, 251, 256

medicine (as an academic field), 20, 35, 57–58, 62, 68, 118, 135, 169, 197, 198, 201, 204, 207, 209, 211, 232, 235, 242, 249, 252, 254, 331, 333, 342, 345–347, 353, 378, 387, 407

Medknow, 160, 183, 324

Medline, 118

MedRounds Publications, 77

Merck, 18

Merton, R. K., 333

metadata and metadata harvesting, 36, 61, 117, 121, 188, 203, 211, 222, 249, 257, 262, 339, 365. See also Open Archives Initiative (OAI)

MEtrics from Scholarly Usage of Resources (MeSur) (LANL), 74, 168, 290

metric system mandate, US federal funding agencies, 238–239

Microsoft, 75, 142, 361

Microtome, 177, 361

midwife analogy, 11, 54, 94

Mill, John Stuart, 99–102, 104

Moghaddam, Golnessa Galyani, 278

Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 170

monographs, xiv, 28, 77, 339. See also books

monopoly, 8–9, 16, 20, 45, 75, 144, 154, 183, 219, 289. See also competition; markets; publishers, TA

moral arguments for OA, 103–104, 349–351

Morris, Sally, 123

Morrison, Heather, 139

Moss, Daniel, 14

Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), 404

movement for Open Access (OA), 28–29, 59–61, 72, 77, 89, 398

BBB statements influence within, 26, 83, 251, 312, 314

compared to movement for free and open-source software, 88

compared to movement for open educational resources, 77

focus on articles, 39, 306

focus on new work, 345

funded research interest, 29

future of, 78–80, 251

goal constructive, not destructive, 37–38, 307, 344

as ground to delay anti-trust action against publishers, 75

not advocating copyright infringement, 304

not limited to publicly funded research, 29

phases of the, 306, 335, 339, 359, 360

system of incentives and, 283

victories and success stories, 85, 88, 209, 212

movies and moviemakers, 29, 46, 97, 359

music and musicians, 29, 97, 303–306, 359, 404

myths and misunderstandings. See also open access (OA);

about OA, 25, 60, 78–80, 87, 126, 281, 314, 320

about OA journals, 33, 124–126, 129, 131, 133, 134, 137, 187

about OA policies, 212, 223–224,

about OA repositories 67, 75, 221, 285, 299

about peer review, 79–80, 175

Napier University, 263

Napster, 28, 45, 303–306

National Academies Press, 339

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 201

National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), 380–381, 384, 387

National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, 17

National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC), 207, 231

National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), 332, 336, 376

National Institute for Health Research (UK), 207

National Institute of Standards and Technology (Commerce Department), 202

National Institutes of Health (NIH), public-access policy

bill to overturn, 227–240

compliance, 247, 261, 360–361

copyright, method for avoiding infringement, 6, 35, 203, 204, 227–240, 258

embargo, 193–195, 204, 207, 209, 211, 232. 235, 240, 254, 375–376

final version, 191–199

Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPAA) mandate and, 201

journal subscriptions and, 342, 344

libraries and, 344

NIH-funded authors, 7, 191, 194, 198, 230, 230, 234, 235, 236, 238, 239, 240, 242, 261

patent law and, 202

publication fees, payment of, 259–260

publisher accommodations, 7, 35, 194, 235, 251, 258

publisher objections, 163, 227–242, 317–318, 375

trade and, 232

whether it has harmed publishers, 240, 255, 295, 322, 342, 343–344

National Institutes of Health (NIH) Public Access Working Group of the NLM Board of Regents, 196, 210, 361

National Library of Medicine (NLM), 374, 378

National Library of Medicine (NLM) Board of Regents, 210, 361

National Library of the Netherlands, 176

National Research Council (NRC), 54

National Research Council (NRC) Press, 54, 56

National Science Foundation (NSF), 201–202

Nature, 79

Nature Physics, 72

Nature Publishing Group, 187

Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 373

Netherlands, 157, 232

Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD), 361

New England Journal of Medicine, 62, 68

nexttext, 77

Nobel Prize winners, 11, 244, 354

Nodelman, Uri, 158

nonrivalrous property, 3–5, 97–98

Northwestern University library, 367

novels and novelists, 4, 29, 39, 306, 339

Nozick, Robert, 397

Nucleic Acids Research, 280

OA citation advantage, 69, 74, 169, 276. 361

Obama (Barack) administration, 324

Office of Fair Trading (UK), 374

OhioLINK, 73

Oman, Ralph, 244

open access (OA). See also journals, OA; myths and misunderstandings; publishers, OA; repositories, OA

defined, ix, 26, 311–316, 413

growth of, factors underlying, 42

historical perspective, 41

legal basis in copyright-holder consent, 27, 45, 88, 203, 306,

legal basis in public domain, 6, 27, 29, 88, 306, 377

for machines, software, 400–401

making it the default, 217–218, 220, 253, 263, 264, 360, 365, 400

Millian argument for, 99–105

mission- vs. market-oriented, 15–22

moral arguments for, 103–104, 349–351

obstacles to, 36, 78–80, 321–322

pragmatic arguments for, 103–104

progress, praising, 313, 315

as seizing opportunities, 95, 97–98, 134, 305, 358

as solving problems, 45, 47, 80, 95–96

taxpayer argument for, OA, 4–5, 51–58, 197–198, 236, 332

trends favoring, 71–81

unbinding projects, 345–355

vehicles for, 31–37, 66, 75–76

Open Access (OA), benefits of

for audience size, 15–16, 38, 40, 42, 48, 61, 97, 104, 296 219, 339, 341, 400

for authors, 40, 42, 46, 48–49, 61, 69, 75, 341

for career advancement, 61, 69

for citizens, 41, 51–58

for funding agencies, 41

for government, 41

for journals, 40

for libraries, 40–41, 48, 96–97

for publishers, 40, 400

for readers, 40–41, 46, 48, 57–58, 341

Open Access Directory (OAD), 184

Open Access News (OAN), xv

Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA), 167, 172, 179, 182, 184, 252

code of conduct, 179, 182

OpenACS, 72

Open Archives Initiative (OAI), 36, 117–121, 249–250. See also metadata; repositories

Open Content Alliance, 76

open educational resources (OER), 77

The Open Information Science Journal (TOISCIJ) (Bentham Open), 180

Open Journal Systems (OJS) (PKP, University of British Columbia), 73, 335

open licenses. See also copyright; Creative Commons; libre OA; licenses

open review, 30–31

Open Society Institute (OSI), 63

open-source software. See free and open-source software.

Open Textbook Project, 77

Optical Society of America (Optics Express), 162, 169, 183, 324

Optics Express, 162, 169, 183, 324

Oregon statutes case, 373, 381

O’Reilly, Tim, 305, 324

orphan works, 378, 387. See also copyright

Ostrom, Elinor, 11–14

overlay journals, 337

Oxford University, 373–374, 376

Oxford University Press, 187

Page, Amanda, 165

Paper Influence Index (Center for Journal Ranking), 168, 290

Parmar, Ramesh, 276

Partnership for Research Integrity in Science & Medicine (PRISM) (AAP), 19, 187, 206, 229

patents, 63, 202, 255–256, 366. See also intellectual property rights

Patry, William, 237, 243

Paulos, John Alan, 409–411

Peek, Robin, 218

peer review. See also editors; referees

bypassing, 56, 60, 79, 175, 212, 216, 223–224

of dissertations, 358

Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPAA) and, 202, 205–208

myths about, 79–80, 175

open review, 30–31

postprints and, 224, 235

preprints and, 28–29, 39

quality of, 180–182, 272–273, 294–295

rejection rates and, 274

repositories and, 31, 252

retroactive, 337

second-order judgments, 399

peer review, economics of

author-side fees and, 180–182

costs, 31, 72–73, 335–337

editors, payment to, 31, 47, 335

referees, payment to, 20, 31, 234

peer to peer (P2P) networks, 75, 303

Pennsylvania State University Press, 187

permission barriers, 25, 26, 27, 39, 40, 45, 47, 48, 76, 83–85, 87–88, 93, 171, 251, 312, 359, 381. See also access, barriers to

permissions

access and, 43–50, 83, 85, 312

postprint archiving, 35, 40, 68, 73, 142–143, 194, 280, 285, 348, 366

preprint archiving, 35, 68–69, 143

most TA publishers permit green OA, 35–36, 142–143, 249

methods for securing, 35, 68, 207, 211, 220–224, 229, 230–233, 241, 257–258

Peters, Mary, 244

Peters, Paul, 136, 169

Philosophers’ Imprint (University of Michigan), 136, 337

philosophy, 95, 136, 156, 158, 186, 332, 333, 336, 339

photocopying, 146, 178

physics, 154, 185, 294, 331, 332, See also arXiv; Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3)

Piper, Greg, 242

piracy, 28, 403

plagiarism, 28, 145–146, 279

distinct from copyright infringement, 146

OA deters, 279

Plato, xiii, 109

PLoS Biology, 63, 280

PLoS ONE, 183

Plutchak, T. Scott, 275

podcasts, 75

policies, OA. See also mandates, OA; individual funders and universities

compliance incentives, 263–264

deposits, 201–208, 213–226, 252–253, 262

deposit location, 249–251, 262

embargoes, 254–255

exceptions, 255–256, 364–367

gratis or libre, 251–252

opt-out policies, 35, 216, 218–220, 223, 226, 263

requirements vs. requests, 193, 194,198, 217, 247–248

rights-retention policies, 35, 207, 220–224

sanctions for non-compliance, 193–194, 204, 217, 260–261

scope, 253–254

timetable for deposits, 256–257

who decides? 265

Pollock, Daniel, 218

Portugal, 214

postal revolution, 109–110, 396–398

postprint archiving. See also green OA; versions

defined, 34, 354

permissions, 35, 40, 68, 73, 143, 194, 280, 285, 348, 366

self-archiving, 207, 256, 294

peer-reviewed, 224, 235

unbinding projects, 345–355

Potto Project, 77

Poynder, Richard, 172

Prelinger, Rick, 381

preprint archiving. See also green OA; versions

defined, 34, 354

peer review and, 28–29, 39, 235, 262

permissions, 35, 68–69, 143

preservation, 27, 34, 44, 48, 75, 80, 104, 119, 121, 136, 172, 176–178, 183, 192, 202, 205, 206, 249, 250, 323, 366, 367, 384,

prestige. See also brand; career advancement; reputation

attracting referees, 287

authors and, 63, 283–285, 287, 289–290, 298, 362–363

creating, 292–293

discriminates against new journals, 284–287, 290, 293, 296, 297

OA, relation to, 10–11, 27, 66, 68, 73, 74, 131, 153, 155, 276, 280, 283–299, 321

print associated with, 73

quality, relation to, 10–11, 63, 73, 74, 153, 167, 174–175, 272, 283–299

Price, Greg, 408

price barriers, 25–27, 39, 45, 46, 47, 76, 83–85, 89, 93, 171, 251, 381. See also access, barriers to; access, economic barriers to

pricing crisis in journals, 7–9, 33, 37–38, 41–50, 72, 124, 331–332, 337–338

Pride and Prejudice (Austin) case, 378–379, 385

Princeton, 408

print, age of, 41, 46, 47, 93, 97, 103, 145, 321, 400

Professional/Society Publishers division (AAP/PSP), 228–229

ProFusion, 410

Project Gutenberg, 76

promotion and tenure (P&T) committees

can create disincentives to publish in OA journals, 10, 62–63, 168–169, 174, 187, 276, 283, 289, 290, 291, 298, 321, 322

can create incentives to deposit in OA repositories, 63, 263–264, 286, 292, 298

quality standards, 263–264, 291

ProQuest, 264, 357, 361

Prosser, David, 120

Public Access Advisory Working Group of the NLM Board of Regents (NIH), 196

Public Access to Science Act, 253

Public Access Working Group (PAWG) (NIH), 204, 210, 361

publication fees. See also article processing charges (APCs)

defined, 413–414

double dipping, 259

doubts about, 31, 133–134, 178, 180–182, 272–273,

effect on converting non-OA journals to OA, 150, 152–154

fee-based OA journals, 19, 32–33, 123–128, 130, 133–135, 137–138, 161, 180–182, 185, 186, 251, 258–260, 272, 274, 324, 325, 332, 333, 338, 396

funders paying fees for grantees, 32, 33, 62, 131, 135, 161, 181, 195, 203, 204, 207, 266

no-fee OA journals, 19, 32, 123, 124, 130, 131, 133–139, 150, 151, 155, 156, 161, 171, 181, 298, 324, 324, 325, 336

subscription journals charging, 123–126, 182, 273

universities paying fees for faculty, 32, 33, 47, 61, 126–131, 137–138, 181, 336–337

waivers for economic hardship, 32–33, 123–124, 134,151, 157, 216, 272, 326,

public domain. See also copyright; digitization of works in the public domain

public good

knowledge as a, 3–14, 46, 97

unbinding for the, 350

Public Knowledge Project (PKP) (University of British Columbia), 335

public libraries, 41, 52

Public Library of Science (PLoS), 11, 25, 32–33, 52, 129, 170, 177, 274, 324, 335–336, 354n2

Publishers

added value, 144–145, 227, 292, 293, 294

as copyright holders, 208, 233–240, 375

midwife analogy, 11, 53, 94

mission- vs. market-oriented, 16–22

plagiarists, prosecution of, 145–146

right to refuse to publish, 7, 35, 62, 68, 198, 218–220, 223, 240–241, 266

subtracted value, 96, 144, 292

universities and power of, 8–11

publishers, OA. See also journals, OA; open access (OA)

publishers, TA. See also journals, TA; monopoly

most permit green OA, 35–36, 142–143, 249

opposition to OA, 72, 81, 163, 207–208, 218–220, 227–242, 307–309, 317–318, 375

PubMed, 118, 212

PubMed Central (PMC), 177, 191–194, 196–197, 212, 229–230, 241, 249–250, 256, 275, 342, 345, 354n2, 375. See also repositories

quality. See also journals, OA; journals, TA

access relation, 271, 279

assessing, 168, 290–291

author pride and, 276–278

embargoes and, 275

ETDs, 358–359, 362–363

Impact Factors vs., 175, 291

incentives to lower, 272–275

mission- vs. market-orientation and, 18

prestige relation, 63, 153, 174–175, 272, 283–299

variables, 271, 286

Queensland University of Technology (Australia), 214

radio, 3–14, 55, 325–326, 395

readers

access fees, 30, 337, 350

benefits of OA to, 40, 46, 48

competition for, 154, 297

fair use and, 171–174, 196, 251

last-mile problem for knowledge, 108–109

recommendation systems, 112

Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), 303, 305, 404

Reeves, Sharon, 369

referees. See also peer review

accountability, 358

attracting, prestige in, 287

journal quality and, 175, 271, 286, 292

unpaid, 20, 31, 234

reference linking, 112

Regazzi, John, 118

Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR), 37, 67

rejection rates

peer review and, 274

profitability and, 16, 126

quality and, 16, 274–275

sciences vs. humanities, 333

repositories, OA. See also green OA; open access (OA); Open Archives Initiative (OAI); self-archiving; specific repositories

costs to run, 34, 37, 47

dark deposits, 34, 257, 265, 286

defined, 414

disciplinary, 249, 262, 338

discoverability, 75, 117–121

dual deposit / release strategy, 211, 222, 257

functions, 34, 66

growth in, 72, 185

indexing, 75

institutional, 34, 36–37, 221, 249–251, 337

interoperable, 36, 249–251

journals vs., 31

libre OA, can provide, 32, 251

mandated deposits, 201–208, 213–226, 252–253

OAI compliance, 36

peer review and, 31, 252

personal web sites vs. 117–119, 121

postprint archiving, 35, 66, 68

preprint archiving, 66, 68

preservation of, 34, 178

university policies on, 249–253, 262

variety of materials, 34, 66

reputation, 11, 170, 174, 187, 284, 287, 292, 296, 347, 351, 353, 358, 365. See also brand; career advancement; prestige

research

access to, 43–56, 191–199, 201–208, 317–318

inquiry and truth-seeking, 10–14, 112–115, 120–121

medical, 57–58, 197–198, 207, 232, 254

unbinding projects, 345–355

Research Councils UK policy, 203, 260

researchers. See authors; faculty

research funding. See funding

right to refuse to publish, 7, 35, 62, 68, 198, 218–220, 223, 240–241

rivalrous property, 3–5, 97–98

roads as public goods, 7–11

Rockefeller University Press, 187

Roel, Eulalia, 337

Rossner, Mike, 187

Rowse, Mark, 149–155, 157, 185–186, 326

Royal Society (UK), 160, 272

Royal Society of Chemistry, 160

Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 11

royalty-free literature, 28–29, 46, 258, 303–305, 359

royalty-producing literature, 29, 255–256, 303–304, 359

RSS feeds, 32, 75

Russia, 214

Sabo, Martin, 57

Sahu, D. K., 276

Sale, Arthur, 248, 360–361, 364, 369

Saudi Arabia, 160

scaling argument, 93–94

scam journals, 18, 178–180

scarcity, artificial, 16, 96, 98, 104, 145, 237, 242, 324

Schiraldi, Glenn R., 355n5

Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC), xv–xvi, 73

Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) Europe, Seal, 170, 172, 188, 212, 252

schools, 15, 20

Schroeder, Patricia, 217

Schroter, Sara, 275

science, 99–103, 202

Science, DOE office of, 201

Science Classics, 77

Science Commons, 73

Science Commons Protocol for Implementing Open Access Data, 252

Science Direct, 118

Science Magazine, 260

sciences, technology, medicine (STM) fields, 331–339

SCImago Journal Rank (University of Granada), 168, 290

Scirus, 361, 410

Scottish Executive Health Department, 207

Seamans, Nancy H., 365

search, 75, 111–112, 117–121, 399, 409–411. See also specific search engines

effective, tools for, 112–113

indexing repositories and journals, 75

librarians vs. scholars use of, 118

natural language, 112

power of, 409–411

relevance algorithm, 117–120, 410

search spam, 410

second-order judgments, 399

self-archiving. See green OA; repositories, OA

semantic web, 112, 172

September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, 355n5

Shankar, Ramamurti, 278

Shaw, George Bernard, 3–4

SHERPA database, 68

Shieber, Stuart, 139, 182, 215–216, 218

Sidiropoulos, Antonis, 168, 290

SJR Indicator (University of Granada), 168, 290

Sloan Foundation, 378

Smith, Richard, 295

social networking, 30, 112

social tagging, 30, 76, 112

societies, scholarly, 17, 32, 159–165

society journals, full/hybrid OA, 160–161, 165

society publishers, 159–163, 165

Socrates, xiii

software

free and open-source, 26, 27, 31, 37, 72–73, 88, 335, 338, 414

journal-management, 72–73, 335

Sokal hoax, 180

some pay for all (SPA) model, 325–328

Sompel, Herbert van de, 74, 168, 290

SOPS, 72

South Africa, 232

Spain, 231

spam, 178–179, 403–404, 410

SPARC Open Access Newsletter (SOAN), xv

Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) (CERN), 154–155, 157, 184–186, 326

Springer, 157–158, 160

Stallman, Richard, 27

St. Andrews University, 221

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP), 156–158

Stanford University, 94, 265

State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), 327–328

statutes, access to digitized, 372–373, 381

Stirling, 265

Strike Rate Index (Barendse), 168, 290

students, 40, 77, 264–265, 278, 357–363

submission fees, 154, 161

submissions

attracting, 40, 287, 292–293, 299

competition for, 296, 347, 353

deterring, 143, 172, 194

electronic, 277, 360, 366

Federal Research Public Access Act (FRPAA) and, 205

increasing, 72, 153–154, 275, 291, 334

NIH-funded authors, 236, 239, 261

overlay journals, 337

prestige / quality relation, 63, 153, 175, 272, 287–288, 292–293, 299

quality and, 74, 125, 175–176, 272, 274

subscribers, competition for, 297

subscription model, 93–97

subsidies. See funding

sui generis, 382–383

SURF, 170, 172

Surowiecki, James, 104

Surratt, Brian, 369

Sutton, Caroline, 139, 159–160, 164

Swan, Alma, 65, 67, 72, 215, 221, 238, 248

Sweden, 207

Swedish Research Council, 207

Switzerland, 214, 232, 396

tarmac problem, 107–108

taxpayer argument for OA, 4–5, 51–58, 197–198, 236, 332

television, 15, 325–326, 328, 395

terminology

“author fees” and “author pays”, 33, 124, 125, 131, 134, 138, 181, 413–414

“gratis OA”, 83–89

“libre OA”, 83–89

“mandate”, 215, 217

“open access”, 26–27, 38, 54, 83–89, 311–316, 387

Testa, James, 277

textbooks, 77, 303

Textbook Revolution, 77

text mining, 112

text summarizers, 112

Thatcher, Sanford, 387

theses. See electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs)

Theses Alive project (Edinburgh), 360

Thomson Reuters, 169

Thomson Scientific, 73, 168, 277

Thorpe, Liffey, xvi

toll access (TA). See journals, TA; publishers, TA

TOPAZ, 72

TRIPS (Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights), 231

Turkey, 214

Twain, Mark, 101

UK PubMed Central (UKPMC), 249

UK PubMed Central (UKPMC) Funders Group, 251

Ukraine, 232

unbinding projects, 345–355

UNESCO, 360, 378

United Kingdom (UK), 107, 160, 207, 214, 231, 232, 396

United States, 160, 232, 396. See specific agencies, departments, laws

universal access, 38, 54–56, 197, 350

universe, critical density of the, 409, 411

Universidad de Oriente, 7

Universiteitsbibliotheken en de Koninklijke Bibliotheek (UKB), 157

universities. See also faculty; libraries, university; specific universities

green OA and, 7, 35–36

publishers and power of, 8–11

repositories, 34, 36–37, 249–253, 262

universities, policies

compliance with university OA policies, 216, 221, 238, 247–248, 260–262, 263–265, 361, 364

deposits allowed, 262

deposits required, 252–253

embargoes, 254–255

ETDs, 264–265, 278, 357–363

exceptions to, 255–256

gratis vs. libre, 251–252

green vs. gold, 248–249

opt-outs, faculty, 35, 216, 218–220, 223, 226, 263

paying publication fees for faculty, 32, 33, 47, 61–62, 126–131, 137–138, 181, 336–337

repository designation, 249–251, 262

requiring vs. requesting OA, 247–248

scope of policy, 253–254

timetable for deposits, 256–257

who decides? 265

University College London, 7

University Microfilms International (UMI) (Proquest), 357, 361

University of British Columbia, 335

University of California, 94, 220, 225–226, 337

University of Chicago Press, 187

University of Connecticut, 94

University of Göttingen, 158

University of Granada, 168, 290

University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, 407–408

University of Iowa, 265

University of Liege, 263

University of Maryland, 94

University of Michigan, 129, 136–137, 337, 386

University of Minho (Portugal), 214, 261

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 94

University of Oldenburg, 168, 290

university presses, 17, 77

Unsworth, John, 286

Usage Factor (UKSG), 74, 168, 290

vaporware, 179

Varjabedian, Kathy, 407

Velterop, Jan, 157

Versions (of journal articles). See also postprint archiving; preprint archiving

enhanced versions, 172

problem of multiple versions, 31, 112, 195, 206,

version to deposit in an OA repository, 66, 146, 192, 195, 202, 206, 207, 209, 212, 213, 224, 236, 252–253, 265

Vetenskapsrådet (Swedish Research Council), 207

Vinci, Leonardo da, 386

Virginia Tech, 365

voice readers, 112

volunteers, 7, 28, 134, 144, 327, 346

waivers

fee waivers, 32–33, 123–124, 134,151, 157, 216, 272, 326,

license or policy waivers, 216, 218–220, 223, 226, 263

Walker-Prosser model, 342

Walljasper, Jay, 14

Walter, Scott, 369

Walters, William, 126, 129

Washington, H. A., 3

web entropy, 409–411

web filters, 399

Web Impact Factor (Ingwersen), 74, 168, 290

Weiss, Rick, 57

Wellcome Trust (UK), 6–7, 29, 35, 207, 220, 231, 241, 251, 254, 256, 260–261, 345, 361. See also funding

Wellcome Trust Library, 378, 387

White House Office for Science and Technology Policy, 19, 324

wikibooks, 77

wikis, 75

Wiley, 75, 79, 206

Wills, Alma, 123–124, 131, 133, 161, 182, 273

wisdom of crowds, 104

Wonder Power, 325

World Academy of Science, 160

World Digital Library, 378, 380

World Health Organization (WHO), 232

World Wide Web, xiv

Yahoo, 75, 118, 142, 361, 410

Yale University Library, 378

y-factor (Sompel), 74, 168, 290

York University, 7

Young, Jeffrey, 104

Zalta, Ed, 158

Zerhouni, Elias, 193–196, 240

Zuckerman, H. A., 333

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